Attachment

Factors like social support, responding to signals and maintenance of proximity for security and protection, for secure attachment and non responsive isolation and separation for insecure attachment are discussed. Separation and related individuation influences and occurrence to enforce self actualization, and character development as part of the psychological development are also elaborated. Keywords: Childhood, Attachment, Separation, Individuation, Self Actualization, Attachment Figure, Caregivers, Sensitivity, Signals, Interactive, Infancy, Emotions, Psychological Development Introduction There are many stages expressed in infancy and childhood development, right from birth, having an impact on the youth and adult life of an individual. In the psychological development of a child, several differences could be exposed when a child is brought up close and away from their mothers or caregivers, simply because it involves their psychological perspective, influencing their future behaviour. A child begins receiving natural care right from the womb, but once born, she or he becomes exposed to the nature of the diverse environment, which needs care and love for survival. The birth itself is the first separation though a biological birth that do not coincide with psychological birth. Certain children are born only to express particular behaviours and reactions, which do not relate with those of other kids born by the same parents. hence using unrelated ways to negotiate their environment or seek attention from their caregivers, because they come with their core self present at birth (Bettmann and Friedman, 2013). The attachment of a child to its caregiver is an evolutionally necessity that contributes to the child social, cognitive, and emotional development. It begins with maternal availability to provide the mother love at the infant age, increasing interest of the things in the environment, pride of association to a family, and the general well being (Karen, 1994). Although several people would deny this, the fact is demonstrated by infants who are deprived of mothers love through there low levels of interaction. Each child has needs that the caregiver is expected to fulfil, and most of the time when she/ he cries or smiles among others, is trying to give out a signal, which the caregiver should strive to respond to. The emotional bond changes with children growth towards identification of an individual character. After birth, the child seems to attach to any person at their exposure, later they develop particular preference of a single attachment figure, after learning to distinguish primary from secondary caregivers, simply because they realise the special preference offers the necessities for secure attachment. Factors that Contribute to Secure Attachment Maintenance of physical proximity The infants have a desire to be close to the attachment figures most of the time, since they feel that their needs are met. Maintenance of the proximity promotes the emotional security as well as infant’s literal survival (Wallin, 2007). That is why you will find them crying, crawling, and clinging to them, when been handed to other persons other than them. They feel no attachment to the other party, and their emotions are disturbed. The proximity also brings perspective of ‘