Supportive evidence came from a meta-analysis of twenty-six trials over a period of more than fifteen years done by Baum et al, which concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis was an efficient means of reducing postoperative surgical site infections, and was so significant as to no longer justify the use of placebos in such trials. This led to reduced clinical research in this are till about a decade ago.In recent studies that have gone into antibiotic prophylaxis in certain specific surgical procedures like colorectal surgery, the findings have led to the practice of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent postoperative superficial and deep surgical site infections being challenged. These challenges arise from two factors. New data has led to the identification of specific predictors of postoperative in certain specific surgical procedures like colorectal surgery that calls for modifications in the antibiotic prophylaxis in selected patients. The second factor is that there are indications from data compiled that the postoperative infection rate may be higher by nearly a hundred percent, when independent surgeon-trained observers are used for detecting postoperative infection rates, calling for better observation of the benefits of antibacterial prophylaxis in surgical procedures. (Jimenez, C.J., Wilson, E.S., 2003).According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately five hundred thousand surgical site infections (SSIs) occur every year in the United States of America. SSIs are considered among the highest common causes of nosocomial infections. While two to five percent of patients that undergo clean extra-abdominal operations develop SSI, nearly twenty percent of the patients undergoing intraabdominal surgical procedures develop SSI. Patients with SSI have a sixty percent chance of spending more time in intensive care units, and five times more probability of the requirement for readmission.