In Fewer Call Themselves Multiracial, the author Nasser conveys credibility and ethos by means of using the strong support of statistics, quotation from authority, and inductive reasoning, and concludes that the decline in multiracial self-identity is because “there is a lot of pressure from society to choose one race” (Wood, 2008, p.184). Pathos or emotional persuasion of the reader is through quotations from authorities who state that identifying more than one race, opposes racial identity. For this, the solution is to accept is 100% of one race, as well as 100% of the other race as well, rather than being half of each race.
Logos or logical reasoning is used by the author. In the 2000 census, people were allowed to check more than one race, as a result of lobbying undertaken by mixed-race Americans urging the government to permit identification with more than one race. Moreover, the movement for grew stronger with multi-racial proclamations from famous celebrities such as golfer Tiger Woods, actress Halle Berry, and several others. However, the census bureau’s survey showed a drop from 2.4% in 2000 to 1.9% in 2005, a small but significant decline in mixed-race self-identification (Wood, 2008).
In What Sets Us Apart, the author Zuckerman establishes ethos or ethical appeal by giving both the positive and negative cultural impacts that America has over the rest of the world. The author uses pathos to support his argument, through persuading by means of appealing to the emotions of the reader (Durhamtech, 2009). This is evident in Zuckerman’s statement “So America’s narrative which has waxed for so long is now waning in its universal appeal” (Wood, 2008, p.192) as is obvious from the decline of America’s image in other countries. Grievances have strengthened, which have long past on American policies related to the environment, globalization, multinational corporations, the death penalty have.
The author also uses logos, to persuade by the use of reasoning or logic. This is seen in his reasoning, in the form of both positive and negative cultural values of America, which are being reflected by other countries. The logical conclusion drawn by Zuckerman is that, despite the numerous negative aspects of American culture, it is important to do justice to America’s extraordinary attributes such as individualism, diversity, opportunities for freedom, the welcome the country extends to newcomers, and the distinctive entrepreneurial and practical society (Wood, 2008).
According to Zuckerman, American cultural values such as the rhetoric of freedom, movies, television situational comedies, music, jeans, and colas have spread all over the world. America’s ideals, particularly after World War II, “the rule of law, individual freedom, defense of human rights, and the just use of American power against Fascism and Communism” (Wood, 2008, p.191) have been projected by the media, as the American narrative. American pop culture had challenged extreme capitalism and authoritarianism which is an uncommon occurrence in most other parts of the world.
The author also writes about some of the negative American values that are communicated globally through films, the Iraq war, and other aspects. Examples are a crime, moral decline, promiscuity, defiance, and ridicule of all forms of authority including parental and that of teachers and political leaders, and other forms of the cultural deficit. Disregard of social order and sense of priorities in pursuit of materialistic profits, and the justification of the use of force to impose its will on other countries are also increasingly recognized as the prevailing values in America (Wood, 2008).
3. Use of the Argument Theory for Position Paper on One’s Issue
The issue selected for one’s Position Paper is “Sustainable Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis”. In this paper, argument theory using ethos, pathos, and logos will be employed to put forth the argument. The argument upholds that the global freshwater crisis should be resolved by both individuals and groups, by actively implementing water conservation strategies (WWDR 2, 2006). The position taken is that inefficient supply and improper use of water are the main causes of the global water crisis, rather than a shortage of water
4. The Claim that will be Developed in the Position Paper. and the Type of Claim
The following claim will be developed: Rather than continually searching for more water resources, the methods by which water is used will be changed. Reforms in water governance along with an integrated approach to water management including various sustainable solutions are considered essential.
The type of claim is identified as a Claim of Policy. That is, the future course of action has to be planned and implemented.
5. Examples for Each Type of Proof that can be used in One’s Position Paper
Ethos or credibility proof in the argument will be that this topic of the global water crisis has increasingly become crucial to the future survival of mankind. This is true all over the world, especially in developing countries such as Africa which are already facing dire difficulties in the procurement of water. The pathos or emotional proof in the argument will relate to the hardships faced by populations across the globe, without easy access to clean water for consumption. The morbidity and mortality caused by diseases arising from lack of hygiene in the absence of access to adequate, clean water, water-borne diseases, and the consequent high child mortality rates in African countries will contribute to the pathos in the argument. Logos or logic proof and persuasion through reasoning will include various factors. These are a discussion of the challenges of water governance, policy formulation and planning of global freshwater resources, use of water for agricultural irrigation, and water conservation measures such as ventilated composting sanitation systems, and desalination plants. According to UNESCO (2006), the world’s water crisis is considered to be mainly one of governance.
Thus, analysis of claims and proofs help in developing an argument forcefully and can help to convince readers on the validity of the issue under consideration.