Lab 9Configuring DNS RecordsThis lab contains the following exercises and activities: Exercise 9.1 Managing DNS Resource Records Exercise 9.2 Configuring Round Robin Exercise 9.3 Configuring Zone Scavenging Exercise 9.4 Troubleshooting DNS Lab Challenge Using the DNSCMD Command to Manage Resource Records BEFORE YOU BEGINThe lab environment consists of student workstations connected to a local area network, along with a server that functions as the domain controller for a domain called contoso.com. The computers required for this lab are listed in Table 9-1.Table 9-1Computers Required for Lab 9 Computer Operating System Computer Name Server (VM 1) Windows Server 2012 R2 RWDC01 In addition to the computers, you also require the software listed in Table 9-2 to complete Lab 9. Table 9-2Software Required for Lab 9 Software Location Lab 9 student worksheet Lab09_worksheet.docx (provided by instructor) Working with Lab WorksheetsEach lab in this manual requires that you answer questions, take screen shots, and perform other activities that you will document in a worksheet named for the lab, such as Lab09_worksheet.docx. You will find these worksheets on the book companion site. It is recommended that you use a USB flash drive to store your worksheets, so you can submit them to your instructor for review. As you perform the exercises in each lab, open the appropriate worksheet file using Word, fill in the required information, and save the file to your flash drive. After completing this lab, you will be able to:§ Manage DNS Resource Records§ Configure round robin§ Configure Zone Scavenging§ Troubleshoot DNS§ Using DNSCMD command to manage Resource RecordsEstimated lab time: 60 minutes Exercise 9.1 Managing DNS Resource Records Overview In the previous lab, you created several zones. With the exception of default resource records that are created when you create a zone, you need to add resource records. Therefore, during this exercise, you create resource records. Mindset The Host (A or AAAA) resource record is the most common resource record, which is used to resolve IP addresses from host names. However, you also need to be familiar with other common resource records (such as PTR, MX, and CNAME resource records). Completion time 15 minutes 1.Log in to RWDC01 as the Contoso\administrator user account with the Pa$$w0rd password. The Server Manager console opens.2.On Server Manager, click Tools < DNS to open the DNS Manager console. If necessary, expand the DNS Manager console to a full-screen view.3.Under RWDC01, expand Forward Lookup Zones. Question 1 What records will you find in a forward lookup zone? 4.Right-click adatum.com and choose Properties. The Properties dialog box opens. Question 2 What records can you configure in the Properties dialog box? Question 3 What is the default minimum TTL for SOA records? 5.Click OK to close the Properties dialog box.6.Right-click adatum.com and choose New Host (A or AAAA). The New Host dialog box opens as shown in Figure 9-1.Figure 9-1Creating a new host record7.In the Name text box, type PC1. For the IP address text box, type 192.168.1.201. Click Add Host.8.When the record has been created, click OK and then click Done.9.Right-click adatum.com and click New Host (A or AAAA). In the Name text box, type PC2. For the IP address text box, type 192.168.1.202. Select the Create associated pointer (PTR) record. Click Add Host. When the record has been created, click OK and then click Done.10. Take a screen shot of the DNS Manager window by pressing Alt+Prt Scr and then paste it into your Lab09_worksheet file in the page provided by pressing Ctrl+V.11. Expand the Reverse Lookup Zones node and then click the 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa zone. Notice that the 192.168.1.202 record is there, but not the 192.168.1.201. You might need to refresh the zone if 192.168.1.202 has not yet appeared. To refresh the zone, press F5. Question 4 What records are kept in the reverse-lookup zones? 12. Right-click 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa and choose New Pointer (PTR). The New Resource Record dialog box opens. 13. On the Host IP Address text box, change the text to 192.168.1.201. In the Host name text box, type PC1. Click OK. Question 5 How does the data for PC1 and PC2 differ? 14. Double-click 192.168.1.201. Change the Host name from PC1 to PC1.adatum.com. (with a period at the end). Click OK. Question 6 What does the period at the end signify? 15. Take a screen shot of the DNS Manager window by pressing Alt+Prt Scr and then paste it into your Lab09_worksheet file in the page provided by pressing Ctrl+V.16. Right-click adatum.com and click New Host (A or AAAA). In the Name text box, type PC3. For the IP address text box, type 192.168.1.203. Select the Create associated pointer (PTR) record, if needed. Click Add Host. When the record has been created, click OK and then click Done.17. Right-click adatum.com and choose New Alias (CNAME). In the Alias name, type www. In the Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for target host text box, type PC3.adatum.com. Question 7 What is the fully qualified domain name? 18. Click OK.19. Right-click the Start button and choose Command Prompt (Admin). The Administrator: Command Prompt opens.20. To see the name PC3 resolved to its IP address, execute the following command: nslookup PC3.adatum.com Question 8 What address was returned? 21. To see the IP resolution of 192.168.1.203 to its name, execute the following command: nslookup 192.168.1.203 Question 9 What name was returned? 22. To see the resolution of the alias www.adatum.com to its name and IP address, execute the following command: nslookup www.adatum.com Question 10 What name and IP address was returned? 23. Right-click adatum.com and choose New Mail Exchanger (MX). In the Host or child domain text box, type PC2. In the Fully Qualified domain name (FQDN) of mail server, type adatum.com. Question 11 What is the default Mail server priority? 24. Click OK.25. Right-click the PC1 Host (A) record under adatum.com, and click Properties. Question 12 What fields are displayed? 26. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box.27. Click View < Advanced.28. Right-click the PC1 Host (A) record and choose Properties. Question 13 What new field is now available with the Advanced view? 29. Change the Time to live to 15 minutes. 30. Take a screen shot of the PC1 Properties dialog box by pressing Alt+Prt Scr and then paste it into your Lab09_worksheet file in the page provided by pressing Ctrl+V.31. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box.End of exercise. You can leave the windows open for the next exercise. Exercise 9.2 Configuring Round Robin Overview By default, DNS Round Robin is enabled. Round robin operates by providing one DNS server IP address to a given query, then provides a different IP address for the next query, and so on, until a configured list of DNS server IP addresses runs out. The last query causes a loop-around to the first IP address and begins the sequence over again. In this exercise, you create two resource records to demonstate round robin switching between two separate DNS IP addresses Mindset Round robin is a DNS balancing mechanism that distributes network load among multiple servers by rotating resource records retrieved from a DNS server. Completion time 10 minutes 1.On RWDC01, with DNS Manager console, create a host record for web.adatum.com that points to 192.168.1.205.2.Create a second host record for web.adatum.com that points to 192.168.1.206.3.At the command prompt, execute the following command: nslookup web.adatum.com Question 14 What addresses were returned? 4.Re-execute the nslookup web.adatum.com command. Question 15 What addresses were returned? 5.Execute the following command: ping web.adatum.com Don’t worry that the ping fails; focus on the address that is returned.6.Execute the ping web.adatum.com command again, and then execute the command a couple more times. Observe that the return address toggles back and forth between 192.168.1.205 and 192.168.1.206, in effect, balancing the query load between two IP addresses. End of exercise. You can leave the windows open for the next exercise. Exercise 9.3 Configuring Zone Scavenging Overview With dynamic addresses, often resource records will be added to a DNS zone, and will remain there unless they are manually deleted or scavanged. During this exercise, you configure zone scavenging. Mindset When you want DNS zone scavenging, you must enable scavenging at the server and at the zone. Completion time 10 minutes 1.On RWDC01, with DNS Manager console, right-click RWDC01and choose Set Aging/Scavenging for all Zones. The Server Aging/Scavenging Properties dialog box opens as shown in Figure 9-2.Figure 9-2Configuring aging and scavenging settings Question 16 When you enable DNS scavenging, what is the default number of days before a record is scavenged? 2.Click the Scavenge stale resource records option.3.Click OK to close the Server Aging/Scavenging Properties dialog box.4.Click to enable the Apply these settings to the existing Active Directory-integrated zones option. Click OK to close the Server Aging/Scavenging Confirmation dialog box.5.Right-click the adatum.com zone and choose Properties.6.On the General tab, click the Aging button. The Zone Aging/Scavenging Properties dialog box opens.7.Click to enable the Scavenge stale resource records option.8.Take a screen shot of the DNS Manager window by pressing Alt+Prt Scr and then paste it into your Lab09_worksheet file in the page provided by pressing Ctrl+V.9.Click OK to close the Server Aging/Scavenging Properties dialog box.10. When you are prompted to apply aging/scavenging settings to the Standard Primary zone, click Yes.11. Click OK to close the adatum.com Properties dialog box.End of exercise. You can leave the windows open for the next exercise. Exercise 9.4 Troubleshooting DNS Overview In Exercise 9.2, you used nslookup to show name/IP resolution. However, during this exercise, you use nslookup in other ways to test DNS. You also use the DNS built-in tools to test DNS. Mindset Because DNS is an essential service that can bring any network down when it is not available, you need to know how to troubleshoot it. Microsoft provides several tools to help you troubleshoot DNS problems, including the IPConfig command, the NSLookup command, and the DNS console. Completion time 10 minutes Question 17 What command would you use to show which DNS server a client is using? 1.On RWDC01, at the command prompt, execute the following command: nslookup PC1.adatum.com2.To start nslookup in interactive mode, execute the following command: nslookup3.To display the SOA record for adatum.com domain, execute the following commands: set type=soa adatum.com4.To display the MX record for the adatum.com domain, execute the following commands: set type=mx adatum.com5.Take a screen shot of the Command Prompt window by pressing Alt+Prt Scr and then paste it into your Lab09_worksheet file in the page provided by pressing Ctrl+V.6.Close the Command Prompt.7.On RWDC01, with DNS Manager console, right-click RWDC01 and choose Properties. The properties dialog box opens.8.Click the Monitoring tab (see Figure 9-3).Figure 9-3Monitoring the DNS server9.Select to enable the following settings: A simple query against this DNS server A recursive query to other DNS servers10. Click Test Now.11. Take a screen shot of the RWDC01 Properties dialog box by pressing Alt+Prt Scr and then paste it into your Lab09_worksheet file in the page provided by pressing Ctrl+V. Question 18 Did either simple query or recursive query fail? If a failure did occur, why did it fail? 12. Close DNS Manager.Lab REview Questions Completion time 10 minutes 1.In Exercise 9.1,what is the most commonly used DNS resource record?2.In Exercise 9.1, where is the default TTL stored?3.In Exercise 9.1, where are PTR records stored?4.In Exercise 9.1, what view do you need to be in to modify the TTL for an individual record?5.In Exercise 9.2, how did you enable round robin?6.In Exercise 9.3, to enable zone scavenging, what two places did you have to configure?7.In Exercise 9.4, what tool is used to test DNS queries? Lab Challenge Using the DNSCMD Command to Manage Resource Records Overview To complete this challenge, you must demonstrate how to use the DNSCMD command. Mindset In the last lab, you were introduced to the dnscmd command to create zones. In this lesson, you can also use the dnscmd command to manage resource records. Completion time 5 minutes You need to configure a few scripts that will create DNS zones. What commands would you use to perform the following on RWDC01.contoso.com for the contoso.com domain:Add a host record for Test01 with an IPv4 address of 192.168.1.221 on the RWDC01 server.Delete the Test01 record that you just created in the previous step.End of lab. You can log off or start a different lab. If you want to restart this lab, you’ll need to click the End Lab button in order for the lab to be reset.