58 Which of the following is not a contributing factor to the increasing sophistication of


58. Which of the following is not a contributing factor to the increasing sophistication of


operations and strategy?

a) Production processes and quality improvements

b) Shortening of product life cycles

c) Management innovations

d) Customer perception of manufacturing techniques

59. A strategy is the comprehensive master plan stating how the organization will achieve its

mission and objectives. In understanding a strategy, organizations aim to:

a) maximize cost efficiencies even if this is achieved at the expense of quality.

b) maximize competitive advantage and minimize weaknesses.

c) maximize competitive advantage and minimize effectiveness

d) optimize costs in delivering the product and after sale service.

60. Total Customer Value = Perceptions of Benefits minus ______________.

a) Total manufacturing costs

b) Total marketing costs

c) Total cost of ownership

d) Total operational costs

61. The resource-based theory of competitive advantage emphasizes on ________________ as the

foundation for developing competitive advantage.

a) the organization’s resources and capabilities.

b) the in-house technologies and cost efficiency.

c) the organization’s level of productivity and international experience.

d) the organization’s unique processes and leadership.

62. The ways in which organizations discharge their moral and ethical responsibilities is increasingly

being scrutinized because:

a) consumers are becoming more knowledgeable in new technologies.

b) the economic activities of many muinational organizations impact on the lives of global

citizens and the physical environments.

c) international institutions such as the World Trade Organizations are not making sufficient

efforts in these issues.

d) muinational organizations have specifically demand more scrutiny in their global business


63. Which of the following is not a benefit of using the new electronic media in international


a) Giving customers and other stakeholders the option on how and when information is

available to them.

b) New electronic media enable the capturing, storage and analysis of information on

customers and their behaviour.

c) Due to increase of electronic communication, it inevitably creates more wasteful, unwanted

and unselective advertising.

d) It facilitates the building of long-term satisfying relations with key stakeholders.