4G/5G wireless networks

Skype has been the most successful service provider and studying it may provide insights into possible solutions. A model has been proposed for further research that is not only user centered, but can also benefit from some of Skype’s attributes such as ability to interact with NATs and firewalls seamlessly.
Video conferencing is rapidly gaining momentum and many end users are adopting this service. For instance, skype is the fastest growing audio conferencing service provider with its annual revenue exceeding $ 136 million (Huang, Chen, &amp. Huang, 2009). With the rapid growth and expansion witnessed in this industry, information technology experts are concerned with the impact of video calls, and the quality of experience under a variety of network conditions that are available to them. Skype offers its end users voice calls services, text messaging services, audio conferencing services, and instant messaging (Baset &amp. Schulzrine, 2006). Delivering delay sensitive voice data from one user to user effectively has been a multimedia networking problem. Voice data has a high data rate. Failures in networks for example, impairments in network capacity significantly affects the voice traffic data rates. The rapid increase in multimedia traffic seen over the internet presents a major hurdle in delivery of quality service to end users. In order to deliver quality service, voice data has to be sent using a high bit rate. Using a higher bit rate could however result in the waste of network resources. Using a higher bit rate mat also result in congestion within the network. the aim is to guarantee quality of experience (QoE) the end users receive is high. However, using high bit rates would result in network congestion which would in turn compromise end user QoE.
In order to address this problem, studies have been conducted on skype to establish how it manages to deliver to its end users a high